Difference of Positivism, Interpretative Social Science and Critical Social Science



Positivism
Interpretative Social Science
Critical Social Science
1. Reason for research
To discover natural laws so people can predict and control events
To discover and describe meaningful social action
To smash myths and empower people to change society radically
2. Nature of social reality
Stable preexisting patterns or order that can be discover
Fluid defenitions of a situation created by human interaction
Conflict filled and governed by hidden underlying structures
3. Nature of human beings
Self interested and rational individuals who are shaped by external forces
Social beings who createmeaning and who constantly make sense of their worlds
Creative, adaptive people with unrealized potential, trapped by illusion and exploitation
4. Role of common sense
Clearly distinc from and less valid than science
Powerful everyday theories used by ordinary people
False belief that hide power and objective conditions
5. Theory looks like
A logical, deductive system of interconnected definitions, axioms and laws
A description how a groups’s meaning system is generated and sustained
A critique that reveals true conditions and helps people see the way to a better world
6. An explanation that is true
Is logically connected to laws and based on facts
Resonates or feel rights to those who are being studied
Supplies people with tools needed to change the world
7. Good evidence
Is based on precise observations that others can repeat
Is embedded in the context or fluid social interactions
Is informed by a theory that unveils illusions
8. Place for values
Science is value free, and values have no place except when choosing a topic
Values are an integral part of social life: no group’s values are wrong, only different
All science must begin with a value position: some positions are right, some are wrong
9.Metode Penelitian
Kuantitatif
- Survey
- Eksperimen
- Evaluasi
Kualitatif
- Ethnography
-Thick Description
- Fenomenologi
Kualitatif
-Participatory research (PAR)
• • •

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